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X-ray pulse preserving single-shot optical cross-correlation method for improved experimental temporal resolution
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14.In a second mode of operation, a film supported by a Si substrate can partially block the x-ray beam. This might improve the balance between the signal level on the cross-correlator and the transmission to the experiment under certain circumstances.
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19.As the phase cavity data of the electron bunch arrival time feeds back to the master timing, there is no visible drift on this time scale from the electron bunch.
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Image of FIG. 1.

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FIG. 1.

(Color online) Experimental setup. The LCLS beam (grey) impinges on a thin Si3N4 film, prior to traveling through the monochromator. The rejected photon energies are blocked by a slit and the beam is refocussed into the experimental chamber. It is further illustrated how the electron bunch arrival time, as measured in a phase cavity, controls the timing of the optical laser. Part of this laser was split off to study the reflection from the x-ray irradiated Si3N4 film, while the main pulse traveled to the experiment. The optical laser path lengths were adjusted such that the split off laser pulse overlapped on the Si3N4 film with the same x-ray pulse as the main pulse in the optical x-ray pump-probe experiment. Typical camera images of the optical laser reflected from the film after background subtraction are shown at the bottom. The relative arrival time jitter is mapped onto a spatial coordinate on the camera (here already converted totime).

Image of FIG. 2.

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FIG. 2.

(Color online) Geometry for the cross-correlator. The x-ray pulses impinge normal to the film. The optical laser pulses enter under an angle α = 50° to the film. This geometry effectively maps different relative arrival times Δt of both pulses onto different spatial coordinates Δs on the camera, following , with the speed of light c. The arrows depict the same arrival times in the optical laser time frame.

Image of FIG. 3.

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FIG. 3.

Jitter corrected pump-probe data. The data shown are from the canonical measurement of the x-ray induced reflectivity change of a 1000 nm Si3N4 film on a Si substrate. The curves (b) and (c) are shifted downwards by 3% and 6% on the ordinate. Dataset (a) shows the uncorrected data that relies on the intrinsic timing synchronization at LCLS. The curve is fitted with a step function convolved with a Gaussian to model the pulse lengths and timing jitter broadening. The width in (a) is 420 ± 30 fs (FWHM). In dataset (b), the x-ray arrival time has been corrected by the phase cavity measurements of the electron timing relative to the master clock. The fitted width is 410 ± 30 fs (FWHM). In dataset (c), we correct the pump-probe delay with the relative arrival time information from the cross-correlator. The found residual width is 130 ± 20 fs (FWHM).

Image of FIG. 4.

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FIG. 4.

Timing drifts during the measurement. The data shown are sampled with 1 Hz although we measured with 60 Hz repetition rate. (a) The relative arrival time between x-rays and optical pulses measured with the cross-correlator as a function of measurement time. (b) The arrival time of the electron bunch measured with the phase cavity relative to the master clock.

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/content/aip/journal/apl/100/12/10.1063/1.3695164
2012-03-20
2014-04-23

Abstract

We measured the relative arrival time between an optical pulse and a soft x-ray pulse from a free-electron laser. This femtosecond cross-correlation measurement was achieved by observing the change in optical reflectivity induced through the absorption of a fraction of the x-ray pulse. The main x-ray pulse energy remained available for an independent pump-probe experiment where the sample may be opaque to soft x-rays. The method was employed to correct the two-pulse delay data from a canonical pump-probe experiment and demonstrate 130 ± 20 fs (FWHM) temporal resolution. We further analyze possible timing jitter sources and point to future improvements.

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Scitation: X-ray pulse preserving single-shot optical cross-correlation method for improved experimental temporal resolution
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/apl/100/12/10.1063/1.3695164
10.1063/1.3695164
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