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(a) Plane-view HRTEM images and respective indexed electron diffraction patterns of the parent NiO films with = 0 and 150 V Ar ion beam damage to the surface. (b) AFM images of the NiO surfaces after = 0 (top), 130 (middle), and 150 V (bottom). (c) A typical cross-sectional TEM image of the 9 nm thick Ni80Fe20 layer and 16 nm thick NiO film layer on the SiO2 substrate. (d) Average crystallite sizes determined from Scherrer analysis of x-ray diffraction patterns of the bilayer films using the Ni80Fe20 (111) and (200) reflections and the NiO (111) and (220) reflections and surface roughness () of the NiO determined from AFM measurements.
(a) Temperature dependence of the difference between the ZFC and FC 100 Oe magnetization for the Ni80Fe20/NiO films. The inset shows the blocking temperature (TB ), where = 0 of the NiO crystallites dependence on interfacial roughness () with the straight line as a guide to the eye. (b) Hysteresis loops at 10 K for the films after 20 kOe field-cooling from 400 K.
Temperature dependence of the coercivity, , and exchange bias loop shift, , for the Ni80Fe20/NiO films with different interface roughness (or ). The solid lines are to fits described.
Top: Fitted values of the interfacial coupling energy, , as a function of interface roughness, . Bottom: Variation of the exchange biasfield,, scaled by renormalized for the measurement temperature for the respective interface roughnesses.
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