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I–V curves for (a) forming process by current sweep and (b) the first reset operation by voltage sweep in Pt-Ni-NiO-Pt and Ti-Ni-NiO-Pt, respectively. [Inset of (a) and (b) shows the variation of resistance after forming process (measured at 0.2 V) and schematic diagram of Pt-Ni-NiO-Pt or Ti-Ni-NiO-Pt structures.]
Cyclic endurance results by unipolar dc sweep for (a) Pt-Ni-NiO-Pt and (b) Ti-Ni-NiO-Pt (reading voltage: 0.2 V) and partial I–V curves duringcyclic endurance characterization for (c) Pt-Ni-NiO-Pt and (d) Ti-Ni-NiO-Pt.
Temperature distributions in (a) Pt-Ni-NiO-Pt and (b) Ti-Ni-NiO-Pt structures obtained by electro-thermal simulation. [Insets are the zoom-in images of areas surrounded by dotted lines in (a) and (b), respectively.] Cross-sectional area in which arrows are pointing is smaller in the Ti-Ni-NiO-Pt structure compared with the Pt-Ni-NiO-Pt structure.
Physical constants used in elecro-thermal simulation11,12 (T = 300 K).
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