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(a) Sketch of shrink lithography processes. The shrink lithography uses embossing molding method to pattern the shrink film, and thermally shrink the film as a shadow mask subsequently. Metal patterns are obtained by sputtering. SEM images of (b) mold and (c) 21 nm line. (d) AFM image of 21 nm line.
(a) Shift in groove width versus embossing pressure for shrink lithography. Width of the grooves raises with the increase of embossing press when the operating temperature is controlled at room temperature. (b) Line width versus shrink temperature under the condition of controlling the embossing press at 50 kN. Width of the metal lines decreased with the rising of the temperature. (c) SEM images of the metal lines fabricated by shrink lithography from the same mold at different shrink temperatures. (d) SEM images of the grooves embossed by the mold with the increase of embossing press when the operating temperature is controlled at room temperature. (e) A load on the mold positioned onto the shrink film causes local plastic deformation below the tips around. and (f) The recovery of shrink film will decrease the width of the patterns greatly.
SEM images of (a) dot array mold, (b) film before shrink, (c) film after shrink, and (d) metal dot array.
Sketches of (a) unsuspended and (b) suspended graphene nanoribbon. (c) SEM images of suspended grapheme nanoribbon. (d) High magnitude SEM image of graphene nanoribbon. (e) The detection limit results of graphene nanoribbon based biosensor in both suspended and unsuspended situations. Conductance versus time data recorded after alternate delivery of the following concentrations of PSA: (1) PBS contains no PSA, (2) 0.1 pg/ml, (3) 1 pg/ml, (4) 10 pg/ml, (5) 1 ng/ml, and (6) 1 μg/ml. Inset: the illustration of PSA sensing mechanism, where the graphenenanoribbon is modified with PSA antibody receptors. PSA bonded specifically to receptors will produce a conductance change of the graphene nanoribbon.
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