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The crystal structures of TiOx and TNO films studied by (a) X-ray diffractograms and (b) bright field TEM images.
Electronic structures of TNO films in the conduction band prepared by X-ray absorption spectroscopy, as a function of annealing temperatures.
(a) Nb 3d and (b) O 1s spectra of the TNO films obtained by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.
Schematic energy level diagrams reflecting the relative position of the Fermi level (EF) with respect to the conduction band minimum (C.B.) and valence band maximum (V.B.), before and after annealing.
Representative (a) transfer and (b) output characteristics of annealed TNO films at 450 °C.
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