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Nanocrystal-based Ohmic contacts on n and p-type germanium
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(a) Cross-section of simulated device showing the electric field lines at the metal1-metal2/semiconductor interface. (b) Cross-section schematic of fabricated device. Au nanocrystals (NC) are embedded in Ti contact metal on top of n/p-Ge substrates to obtain Ti-Au (NC)/Ge “triple” interfaces. (c) Simulated energy band diagrams through Au/-Ge and Ti-Au (NC)/-Ge interfaces. (d) Simulated energy band diagrams through Au/-Ge and Ti-Au (NC)/-Ge interfaces.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(a) Simulated electric field values along Au/Ge and Ti-Au/Ge interfaces on both, -Ge and -Ge. (b) Variation of peak electric field at the metal1-metal2/Ge triple interface with difference in work function of metal1 and metal2.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(a) X-ray photoelectron spectrum of n-Ge substrate annealed at 400 °C showing the formation of GeOx . (b) Scanning electron micrograph of Au nanocrystals (NC) formed on n-Ge by annealing a 2 nm Au film for 30 s at 400 °C followed by a 120 s HF:DI etch. (c) Process flow used for the fabrication of Ti-Au (NC)/Ge samples.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(a) RT current density-voltage (J-V) characteristics of Ti/Interfacial Layer (IL)/n-Ge contacts for different annealing temperatures. (b) J-V characteristics of Ti/IL/p-Ge contacts.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(a) RT J-V characteristics for Au/n-Ge, Ti/n-Ge, Ti/IL/n-Ge, and Ti-Au (NC)/n-Ge samples. (b) J-V characteristics for Au/p-Ge, Ti/p-Ge, Ti/IL/p-Ge, and Ti-Au (NC)/p-Ge samples.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

RT J-V characteristics for Ti and Ti-Au (NC) contacts fabricated on -Ge layers formed using a spin-on-dopant process.12

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

(a) Measured and ideal (Schottky-Mott) barrier height vs metal WF for n-Ge. (b) Plot of vs 1/T for Ti/n-Ge and Ti-Au (NC)/n-Ge samples.


Generic image for table
Table I.

The electron and hole Schottky barrier height values for Ti/Ge, Au/Ge, Ti/IL/Ge, and Ti-Au (NC)/Ge samples. “O” stands for Ohmic/quasi-Ohmic contact ( (Ref. 3)). Ti-Au (NC)/Ge samples are “O” for both n and p-Ge.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Nanocrystal-based Ohmic contacts on n and p-type germanium