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(a) SEM images of the as-deposited tungsten nanowires (a1) and those irradiated with an increasing Ga ion-beam sweep number, showing the bending sequence ((a2)–(a6)). (b) The bending angle as a function of the ion sweep number. The scale bar is 2 μm. The inset in the upper left corner of (b) shows the schematic of the definition of the bending angle (Φ), and that in the lower right corner shows the definition of the ion beam incident angle (θ).
The bending angle as a function of the ion sweep number for FIB-grown tungsten nanowires. (a) Bending angle for nanowires irradiated by a 100 pA ion beam with an ion beam incident angle of 50°, 30°, and 10°, respectively. (b) Bending angle for nanowires irradiated with an ion beam incident angle of 30° and an ion beam current of 100 pA, 50 pA, and 30 pA, respectively. The lines are provided to help guide the reader’s eye.
Free-space tungsten nanostructures formed based on FIB-grown tungsten nanowires. (a) Schematics for the construction of joint-nanocontacts/nanogaps by the FIB-induced deformation of vertically grown nanowires. (b) SEM image of arrays of free-space joint-contacts. (c) Nanogapped and branched structures. The scale bar is 1.0 μm.
The temperature-dependent normalized resistivity of a free-space tungsten nanostructure fabricated by the FIB-induced deformation of FIB-grown tungsten nanopillars (red triangle) and that of the as-deposited nanopillar without deformation (black circle). The inset shows the SEM side view image of the corresponding nanostructure.
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