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(a) Structure of the proposed dual-layer graphene modulator integrated on a waveguide. Overlay shows the typical mode profile of the waveguide’s fundamental TE mode. (b) Vertical direction profile of the electric field amplitude decaying from the top surface of the waveguide. Green shaded area marks the waveguie. Black dashed lines mark the graphene layers. (c) Lateral direction profile of the electric field amplitude decaying from the side surface of the waveguide. Yellow shaded area marks the metal contact.
Plot of (a) modulation depth, (b) insertion loss, and (c) bandwidth vs. background electron conentration, nb , for waveguide-coupled graphene-on-graphene optical modulator using the device parameters listed in Table I. The graphs are shown for both λ = 1.55 μm (blue) and λ = 3.5 μm (red), and for pristine graphene with σ = 0 (dashed lines) as well as graphene with random potential fluctuations of σ = 65 mV (solid lines). The circles represent the optimal design points listed in Table II.
Plot of Fermi level vs. time for top (colors) and bottom (black) graphene layers for several fixed values of nb listed on the right side of the graphs. In (a), λ = 1.55 μm, while in (b), λ = 3.5 μm. For both (a) and (b), graphene layers with realistic potential fluctuations of σ = 65 mV have been utilized.
Nominal graphene modulator values used for simulations.
Performance summary of graphene modulators.
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