banner image
No data available.
Please log in to see this content.
You have no subscription access to this content.
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
High-speed waveguide-coupled graphene-on-graphene optical modulators
Rent this article for


Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(a) Structure of the proposed dual-layer graphene modulator integrated on a waveguide. Overlay shows the typical mode profile of the waveguide’s fundamental TE mode. (b) Vertical direction profile of the electric field amplitude decaying from the top surface of the waveguide. Green shaded area marks the waveguie. Black dashed lines mark the graphene layers. (c) Lateral direction profile of the electric field amplitude decaying from the side surface of the waveguide. Yellow shaded area marks the metal contact.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Plot of (a) modulation depth, (b) insertion loss, and (c) bandwidth vs. background electron conentration, nb , for waveguide-coupled graphene-on-graphene optical modulator using the device parameters listed in Table I. The graphs are shown for both λ = 1.55 μm (blue) and λ = 3.5 μm (red), and for pristine graphene with σ = 0 (dashed lines) as well as graphene with random potential fluctuations of σ = 65 mV (solid lines). The circles represent the optimal design points listed in Table II.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Plot of Fermi level vs. time for top (colors) and bottom (black) graphene layers for several fixed values of nb listed on the right side of the graphs. In (a), λ = 1.55 μm, while in (b), λ = 3.5 μm. For both (a) and (b), graphene layers with realistic potential fluctuations of σ = 65 mV have been utilized.


Generic image for table
Table I.

Nominal graphene modulator values used for simulations.

Generic image for table
Table II.

Performance summary of graphene modulators.


Article metrics loading...


Full text loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: High-speed waveguide-coupled graphene-on-graphene optical modulators