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Real part of the relative permeability µr′ as a function of frequency for permendur (P). The inset shows the bias field H dependence of the magnetostriction λ measured parallel to the in-plane field for a permendur strip.
MEVC vs bias field H measured at 20 Hz for trilayers of permendur and PZT laminate, PZT with IDE, and PZT fibers with IDE.
Frequency dependence of MEVC showing enhancement at EMR for P-PZT fiber-P. The bias field H was set at 25 Oe for maximum in ME response. The peak in MEVC at 47 kHz corresponds to longitudinal acoustic mode in the composite. The solid line represents theoretical estimates.
Magnetic noise at low frequencies for a magnetic sensor of P-PZT fiber-P. The inset shows the voltage noise and magnetic noise as a function of frequency over 41–55 kHz. The sensor output was amplified by a factor of 1000 for these measurements. The lowest noise is measured at EMR and the peak in the data just above EMR is due to environmental noise.
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