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Resistance response of a p-type LiNbO2 memristor to a sinusoidal input voltage demonstrates continuous resistance changes for a large range of input voltages, proving analog functionality.
Schematic of the annular device used in Fig. 1. The spacing between electrodes is 78.0 μm, and the electrode material is a 150 nm/50nm Ni/Au metal stack. Nickel is used at the electrode—LiNbO2 interface to avoid lithium intercalation in the electrode.
Normalized NEXAFS spectra of an as-grown (blue) and 2.0 V biased (green) LiNbO2 memristor. Five regions are collected spatially oriented in parallel with the flow of current with a soft x-ray beam of approximately 1.0 mm in radius. The spectra labeled “1” shown at the top of the figure are collected closest to the anode of the device while the spectra at the bottom labeled “5” are collected close to the cathode of the device. The three spectra in the middle are equally spaced between the anode and cathode. Each plot is normalized to a step edge of 1.0.
Difference NEXAFS spectra of a biased and as-grown LiNbO2 memristor. The difference spectra are collected to determine spatial changes in the LiNbO2 memristor as a function of applied bias where region 1 is closest to the anode and region 5 is closest to the cathode of the device. A reference spectrum (position 4 biased) is included for comparison.
Schematic effective density of states distribution for layered trigonal prismatic semiconductors. The dominant contributions of atomic states to the electronic bands are shown with filled states represented by dashed lines. After Jaegermann and Tributsch (see Ref. 28) modified for actual shape determined from the NEXAFS spectrum of LiNbO2.
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