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Electro-mechanical activation of bi-axially pre-stretched membrane DEAs: (a) photographs showing the top view of an ELD silver electrode for the DEA before and during activation. A 50% area strain is obtained during the activation at 9 kV. (b) A graph showing the actuated area strain as a function of driving voltage for the DEAs using various electrode materials. Five samples of DEAs using ELD silver electrodes were tested, and error bars indicate the standard deviation.
Self-healing demonstrated in a DEA with ELD silver electrodes: (a) time histories of voltage and current show that the first self-healing occurs at 5 kV, as indicated by a recovery following a plunge in voltage together with a corresponding spike in current. (b) A self-heal site wherein passivation of the puncture site circumvents a terminal electrical-shorting.
(a) Change in resistance of an ELD silver electrode, a graphite electrode, and a sputtered silver electrode under uni-axial strain, up to the loss of conductivity; (b) micrographs showing the formation and then widening of micro-cracks in an ELD silver film under uni-axial strains at 0%, 10%, and 20%; and (c) change in resistance of an ELD silver electrode under cyclic loading and unloading of uni-axial strains between 0% and 20%.
Stress-strain curves for VHB 4905 samples with coating of three electrode materials under unaxial stretching. The calculated Young’s modulus for each sample was obtained by using a least-square fitting of measured stress and strain to the Mooney-Rivlin model.
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