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Quantitative analysis of an atomic-resolution ADF-STEM image of  LaB6 without adjustable parameters. (a) Experimental image with simulation overlaid (five unit cells at center). (b) Comparison of a line trace across a row of La atomic columns from experiment (points) with a simulation incorporating the independently measured parameters in Table I (dark line) and a simulation incorporating only those parameters present for an ideal electron beam (light line). The residual refers to the experiment and the simulation incorporating all instrumental parameters.
Contrast analysis of atomic-resolution ADF-STEM images of  LaB6. (a) Experimental image. (b) Modulus of Fourier spectrum from subregion indicated in (a). (c) Simulated Fourier coefficients as a function of specimen thickness with (solid curves) and without (dashed curves) the effects of residual aberrations and focal variation; each Fourier coefficient is labeled by its Miller indices; arrows indicate the appropriate y-axis; the shaded region indicates the range of specimen thicknesses used in this work. (d) Contrast reduction from independently measured effective source compared with that from “remaining” parameters (defined in text) inferred from images of LaB6 and Au (curves are cubic-spline interpolations of data points).
Pertinent parameters for the quantitative interpretation of sub-0.1 nm resolution STEM images. ‘Indep.’ indicates an independent measurement. Parameters marked with an asterisk cause a reduction in the image contrast and are present in a real electron beam.
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