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(Color online) LSMO/STO thin film with 40% excess of La. (a) Topographic SFM image and (b) current map (V = −2 V) corresponding to the same surface displayed in (a) where some insulating regions (black regions) are encircled to observe the correspondence of these regions in the topographic image. Current scale from 0 nA (black) to −10 nA (white). (c) Cross-section low magnification TEM image showing the presence of different grains evidenced by the contrast changes in the image. (d) Low magnification TEM image and corresponding La-M5,4 edge, (e), and Mn-L3,2 edge, (f), filtered images.
(Color online) X-ray diffraction pattern θ − 2θ of the LSMO thin films grown on STO with (a) stoichiometric composition and (b) 40% excess of La. The x axis corresponds to 2θ and the vertical parabolic line corresponds to χ which varies with constant 2θ. The Bragg peaks of the (001)-STO and (001)-LSMO phases are identified in addition to the (110)-LSMO reflection. Reciprocal space maps around the (103) reflections of LSMO and STO of the stoichiometric (c), 20% (d), and 40% (e) excess of La films. rlu means “reciprocal lattice units” and 1 rlu = 2/λ with λ = 0.154184 nm.
HRTEM images showing different inclusions with crystal structure consistent with hexagonal La(OH)3 (a) and monoclinic LaO(OH) (b). Cross-section HRTEM image exhibiting a misoriented LSMO grain (FFT in B) with grain thickness being almost that of the epitaxial LSMO film (FFT in A).
(Color online) Magnetic and transport properties of the films. (a) Temperature dependence of magnetization taken after field cooling at 0.5 T in-plane applied magnetic field. (b) Isothermal hysteresis magnetic loops at 10 K. (c) Temperature dependence of resistivity at 0 T. (d) Magnetoresistance as a function of temperature measured at 5 T.
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