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Typical XRD pattern of a Nb:TiO2 (5% Nb doped) film growth on LaAlO3 (100) substrate with a thinkness of 35 nm determined by AFM. The sharp peaks which are not indicated are the satellite peaks of the single crystalline substrate.
Hysteresis curve of the Nb:TiO2 film measured at 300 K. The inset shows zoom-in version of the magnetic hysteresis of this sample, the coercivity is about 200 Oe.
(a) The temperature (T) dependence of resistivity (ρ). To see clear, data at low temperature region is enlarged in the inset. Red solid curve: a best fitting using Eqs. (1) and (2) with the parameters ρ 0 = 2.8552 × 10−4 Ω cm, a = 2.8520 × 10−9 Ω cm/K2, b = 8.4638 × 10−16 Ω cm/K5, ρK = 7.908 × 10−6 Ω cm, Seff = 0.1037, and TK = 52.177 K. The blue line is a linear guide. (b) Hall resistance vs magnetic field of the Nb:TiO2 sample measured at 300 K, the inset shows the same after deducting the linear background contributed from the ordinary Hall effect, the red line in the inset is the M-H curve re-plotted by an appropriate scaling.
The XPS spectra of the core-level signal of 2p electrons of Ti cation and 3d electrons of Nb cation for TiO2 and Nb:TiO2 films. (a) Ti 2p of pure TiO2; (b) and (c) Ti 2p and Nb 3d of Nb:TiO2. The experiment data is presented by hollow rings, the yellow line is the fitting curve, and the green line indicating the s-type background.
(a) Total density of states (DOS) of the Nb:TiO2 (12.5% Nb doped). (b) The DOS difference of the spin up and spin down of the s, p, and d electrons.
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