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(a) Hybrid ZnO nanorod array/P3HT device structure with corresponding equivalent circuit and (b) cross-section scanning electron micrograph of a typical device.
Light intensity dependence of short circuit current and open circuit voltage for a typical hybrid ZnO nanorod array/P3HT device. The black lines indicate their power law and logarithmic behavior, respectively.
Typical impedance spectrum revealing the equivalent circuit elements as indicated in Figure 1(a).
Typical behavior of charge carrier density and small-perturbation carrier lifetime obtained from impedance spectroscopy measurements as a function of Voc . Black lines are fits to the data. (b) Calculated values of Voc by means of Eq. (8) versus measured values of Voc for a representative selection of solar cells in various degrees of optimization (Refs. 26 and 29).
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