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(a)–(c) Surface morphology and (d)–(f) corresponding IP PFM image of 30 nm-thick BFO films grown on no-miscut, 2°-, and 4°-miscut LSAO substrates, respectively. The insets of (a)–(c) are the corresponding OP PFM images of three samples. The insets of (d)–(f) illustrate the polarization configurations. The schematic in (f) explains the preferred polarization direction induced by miscut susbstrate. All images are 3 μm × 3 μm. The height scale in (a)–(c) is 5, 5, 30 nm, respectively. The phase scale for PFM images are all 180°.
Surface morphology of 60 nm-thick BFO thin films grown on (a) no-miscut, (b) 2°-miscut, and (c) 4°-miscut LSAO substrates. (d) The eight possible variants of MPNs denoted by the structural vectors. The polarization configuration in each mixed-phase array is indicated by black arrow. Perspective view of the 1+ and 1− variants are also shown. The different types of MPNs in (a)–(c) are identified by arrows according to (d). All images are 3 μm × 3 μm. The height scale in (a)–(c) is 5, 8, 15 nm, respectively.
(001) H-K RSM of the rhombohedral-like phase in the MPNs of (a) no-miscut and (b) 4°-miscut sample. The diffraction peaks are assigned to corresponding structural vectors by arrows. r.l.u. = reciprocal lattice unit.
(001) K-L RSM of 60-nm-thick BFO thin film on 4°-miscut LSAO substrate recorded at (a) 500 °C, (b) 300 °C, and (c) 30 °C, respectively. The x-ray is perpendicular to the miscut direction. (d) Proposed temperature-dependent phase evolution in the highly strain BFO thin film with MPNs grown on 4°-miscut LSAO substrate.
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