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I-V characteristics of the samples at room temperature. Dielectric spectra of samples at 233 K are in the inset.
Frequency dependence of electric modulus for samples A and B at different temperature. The inset shows the activation energies of different defect relaxations calculated by Arrhenius law. (a) and (b)–sample A. (c) and (d)–sample B.
Frequency dependence of conductivity for sample A and B. The inset shows the conduction activation energies calculated by Arrhenius law. The conductivity begins to increase nonlinearly after the frequency exceeds the crossover frequency (f c) at each temperature. (a)–sample A. (b)–sample B.
Electrical parameters of the CCTO ceramics for samples A and B.
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