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Application of the local pinning fields (thick arrows) and schematic of the resulting magnetic textures (thin arrows): (a) center pinning, (b) left off-center, (c) simultaneous left-off-center and right-off-center, and (d) simultaneous center and left-off-center. We find that (b) produces the lowest energy barrier.
Energy as a function of angle for different pinning prescriptions: (a)–(d) of Fig. 1, monodomain (e), and left off-center pinning while initializing the bit at (f). Insets (i)-(iii) show at several critical points along the curves, with red corresponding to positive and blue corresponding to negative magnetizations.
Schematic illustration of the “bottleneck” magnetic configurations for switching under the application of magnetic field, (a) and (c), and during thermal fluctuations, (b) and (d).
Energy profiles of four bit geometries: 400 × 80 × 2 nm3 (top left),9 80 × 40 × 2 nm3 (top right), 150 × 50 × 3 nm3 (bottom left), and 150 × 50 × 1 nm3 (bottom right). The dashed curve shows single-domain, solid curve shows switching by domain wall nucleation, and dotted curve shows micromagnetic switching under application of a center pinning field.
Energy profile of 150 × 50 × 2 nm3 bit with (left) edge roughness of amplitude 10 nm and wavelength 20 nm and (right) further enhanced roughness, where the dashed curve shows single-domain and the solid curve shows micromagnetic switching obtained under application of a local pinning field to the left off-center. The corresponding equilibrium bit textures are shown below.
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