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Structures of vacuum devices and analogues to conventional MOSFET. (a) Vertical field-emitter, (b) planar lateral field-emitter, (c) MOSFET, and (d) gate-insulated air channel transistor.
Top view of SEM images of the photoresist. Initial resist with a line width of 180 nm was trimmed down to (a) 60 nm and (b) 30 nm. (c) Further trimming resulted in two separated patterns with a sharp concave tip. (d) Subsequent resist reflow process softened and rounded by the thermal reflow.
Energy band diagram of the vacuum channel transistor for (a) VG < Vturn-on and (b) VG > Vturn-on.
(a) Simulation results for the turn-on voltage for two different emitter shapes; square symbols for hemiellipsoid tips and circle symbols for sharp tips. The difference in turn-on voltage for the two structures becomes reduced as the emitter-to-collector distance decreases. (b) Ic –Vg for Vc = 10 V, (c) Ic –Vc characteristics for Vg = 5, 6, 7, and 8 V, and (d) Ig –Vg characteristics for Vc = 10 V.
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