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(a) Red-green-blue (RGB) representation of the distribution of Ti (red), Os (green), and P (blue) in Caco-2 cells and Raji-B lymphocytes co-culture exposed for 48 h to its apical pole to rutile TiO2 NPs diluted in culture medium. Individual elements distributions were extracted by a least-square fitting of the XRF spectra per each pixel, achieved with PyMca.14 Scale bar = 20 μm. (b) Temperature-scale relative distribution of Ti in an aggregate of NPs that accumulated into a GI cell; scale bar = 5 μm. The color bar represents the fluorescence photon counts in the spectral region of interest (ROI) of Ti. (c) XANES spectra of rutile TiO2 NPs in various conditions: raw (empty circles), matured in gastric fluid (dashed line, GF), matured in gastric and then intestinal fluids (dashed line, GF + IF), and internalized in GI cells (continuous line, measured with micrometric x-ray beam on the aggregate of (b)).
Extracted experimental EXAFS spectra (dotted lines) of rutile TiO2 NPs accumulated in a GI cell upon translocation (labeled CELLS) and of the same NPs prepared in pellet. Simulations (continuous lines) of the EXAFS spectrum based on all the photoelectron paths taken into account for the analysis and of the contribution of all MS paths only.
Fourier transformed experimental EXAFS spectra (dotted lines) of rutile TiO2 NPs incorporated in a GI cell upon translocation (labeled CELLS) and of the same NPs prepared in pellet, together with the respective best-fitting curves (continuous lines). Inset: Ti environment in rutile TiO2.
EXAFS best-fitting values for rutile TiO2 in GI cells and in reference pellet.
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