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AFM images (400 × 400 nm) of GaAs QDs grown at different temperatures: (a) 300, (b) 200, (c) 130, (d) 80, and (e) 30 °C. Both the droplet formation and crystallization were performed at the same temperature.
(a) Average height and base size of QDs. For the 300 °C sample, the base size was measured for the entire nanostructure including holes and arrowheads, while the height was measured for the arrowhead part. The average hole diameter and depth are 27 and 2 nm, respectively. (b) Dot density is plotted as a function of the inverse temperature. The line shows a fitting with the scaling law.
AFM images (100 × 250 nm) of GaAs QDs grown at 30 °C: (a) 3, (b) 5, and (c) 10 MLs of Ga were deposited. As the amount of Ga increases, the density decreases while the size increases due to the coalescence of Ga droplets.
Low-temperature PL spectra of GaAs QDs with different coverage: 1.1 × 1011 cm−2 (5 MLs grown at 200 °C), 2.7 × 1011 cm−2 (5 MLs, 130 °C), and 7.3 × 1011 cm−2 (3 MLs, 30 °C).
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