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Scheme of broad beam and FIB irradiation (not to scale).
Flux dependence and scanning dependence of FIB produced nanoholes on Ge (100) at RT using the parameters given in Table I.
Nanohole pattern produced using broad beam Ga+ irradiation of Ge (100) at normal incidence, RT, 5 keV, and a fluence of 3.0 × 1018 ions/cm2.
SEM ((a) and (b)) and cross-sectional TEM images ((c) and (d)) of patterns created using a 5 keV Ga+ beam at normal incidence, RT and a fluence of 2.0 × 1017 ions/cm2, (a) and (c) FIB irradiation, (b) and (d) broad beam irradiation.
Snapshot of a simulation of the BS equations at (a) t = 250; (b) t = 1000 using the following parameters: normal incidence of ions, λ = −1, a = 0.25, b = 0.37, c = 1, , η = 0, mesh size 200 × 200 points, spatial step size Δx,y = 1, time steps Δt = 0.01, and a starting surface with white noise. For the simulations we used the coupled equations (Eqs. (40) and (41)) and denomination of parameters according to Ref. 22.
(a) Zoom in simulation, (b) SEM image of a FIB produced pattern with a picture width of 200 nm, and (c) AFM image of a broad beam produced pattern with a picture width of 100 nm and a height of 10.6 nm.
Parameters of the FIB produced nanoholes shown in Fig. 2.
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