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Spectrally integrated, C2, and CN monochromatic images of graphite plasma at 0.4, 1, and 5 Torr N2 pressures. Each image is normalized to its maximum intensity for better clarity.
Position–time (R-t) plots of the plume front at 0.4, 1, and 5 Torr nitrogen pressures measured from the spectrally integrated ICCD plume images. The symbols represent experimental data points and solid curves represent the drag expansion model.
Space-time contours for C2 (λ = 516.5 nm) and CN (λ = 388.3 nm) in N2 gas at 0.4, 1, and 5 Torr pressure levels.
Space-time contours for C (λ = 247.8 nm), C+ (λ = 426.7 nm), and C2+ (λ = 406.9 nm) in vacuum and N2 gas at 0.4, 1, and 5 Torr pressure levels.
Position–time (R-t) plots for CN, C2, C, C+, and C2+ in vacuum and nitrogen at various pressures measured from the corresponding space-time contours. P1 and P2 refer to the early and delayed peaks, respectively, for the noticed double-peak structure of C and C+ in the presence of ambient nitrogen. The symbols represent experimental data points, dash lines represent linear fittings, and solid curves represent the drag expansion model.
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