Self-organization and self-limitation in high power impulse magnetron sputtering
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Examples of counter-clockwise moving ionization zones imaged by a gated, intensified camera with an exposure time of 10 ns. Limited by the single-image capability of the camera, each image was recorded using emitted light from a different HiPIMS pulse (3″ disk Al target, in 0.27 Pa Ar). The light intensity is expressed by false color. The current pulse shape is triangular, i.e., a higher current implies that the image was taken at a later time, as indicated, where is the time when the current rise was clearly discernible (11 μs after applying the voltage). For more details see Ref. 10.
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