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Enhanced light extraction in organic light-emitting devices: Using conductive low-index layers and micropatterned indium tin oxide electrodes with optimal taper angle
15. S. Franssila, Introduction to Microfabrication (Wiley, West Sussex, UK, 2004), Chap. 11.
16.Product data sheet, AZ 5214E Image Reversal Photoresist, Clariant Corp, Somerville, NJ, 1990.
17.There is also an electrical artifact due to a noise being amplified when L < 100–200 cd/m2.
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We present our study on organic light-emitting diodes(OLEDs) in which outcoupling is enhanced based on a bilayer electrode consisting of a conductive low-index layer and micro-patterned indiumtin oxide (ITO) layers. Optical simulation reveals that the taper angle of an ITO pattern is among the most critical parameters influencing the outcoupling efficiency in the proposed structure. A fabrication method based on a lift-off process is then employed to control the taper angle of the ITO pattern to be in the optimal range. OLEDs with the proposed electrodestructure exhibit 50%–70% enhancement in external quantum efficiency over reference devices.
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