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(a) X-ray diffraction pattern for Fe3O4/STO, BiFeO3/STO, and Fe3O4/BiFeO3/STO heterostructures. (b)–(d) AFM, out-plane and in-plane PFM images of BiFeO3/STO heterostructure at as-grown state (upper image) and after annealing in low oxygen pressure (under image), respectively. (e) TEM image of BiFeO3/STO heterostructure after annealing in low oxygen pressure.
Magnetic hysteresis loop for Fe3O4/STO and Fe3O4/BiFeO3/STO heterostructures at 10 K, respectively. Inset: the schematic illustration of Fe3O4/BiFeO3/STO heterojunction, where the magnetic field is applied in-plane.
Temperature dependance of Heb for Fe3O4/BiFeO3/STO heterojunctions with different thickness of Fe3O4 film. Inset: Fe3O4 thickness dependance of Heb for Fe3O4/BiFeO3/STO heterojunctions at different temperatures.
(a) Magnetic hysteresis loop at 10 K for the Fe3O4/BiFeO3/STO heterojunction at as-grown state and magnetic field annealed state, respectively. (b) Field cool magnetic hysteresis loop for annealed Fe3O4 (10 nm)/BiFeO3 (100 nm)/STO heterojunction at 10 K. Curves are shown for measurements after being field cooled from 300 K in +1 T (black) and in −1 T (red).
Atomic arrangement of (a) [FeA]3+ layer and (b) [FeB 2O4]3− layer for Fe3O4, and (c) [FeO]+ layer for BiFeO3 in (001) plane. (d)-(f) Possible structures of a [FeB 2O4]3− layer commensurate onto [FeO]+ layer, solid and broken lines indicate the upper and bottom layer, respectively; and (f) shows a three-layer structure with a [FeA]3+ layer on the top. (g) Side view of the three-layer structure down the gradient broken line in (f) and the schematic of the origin of the interface magnetism.
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