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A hybrid superconductor-normal metal electron trap as a photon detector
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View: Figures


Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Scanning electron micrograph of the sample, fabricated in a three-shadow deposition sequence, including Cr resistor and S(Al) and N(AuPd) leads ordered from top to bottom. Inset: equivalent circuit projecting the SIN tunnel junctions (double boxes with the crossed item for S- and the open item for N-leads), Cr resistor, an effective impedance of the environment of the emitter SET B, R env, and symbolically propagation of photons towards the trap (detector). The short horizontal steps depict the electrostatic barrier for the electron charge captured in the trapping node (the state with energy E 0 marked by the black circle).

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Effect of the emitter SET B on the hold times of the trap. (a) Time traces taken simultaneously for SET A and SET B. The electrostatic barrier was symmetrized for achieving the similar average dwell times (=hold times) for the upper and lower charge states; see the trace for SET A. (b) Correlated behaviour of both voltage V B and hold time in response to a modulation of the gate voltage V gB. The bias points were chosen for both SETs on the QP tunneling branches of the IV-curves with strongly dissimilar currents, I A = 0.1 nA and I B  = 1 nA. Two energy pictographs, “max.CB” and “min.CB,” correspond to the gate regimes of SET with the strongest (requiring the maximum value of V B) and the weakest (the minimum value of voltage V B across SET B) Coulomb blockade, respectively. In the state “max.CB” one of two tunneling steps is capable to release a photon with the energy up to , which is high enough to excite a QP when absorbed in the trap.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(a) Two different data sets with the hold times plotted as a function of voltage V B. (b) The same hold times plotted vs. total power P B dissipated in the emitter SET B. Two sets of measurements are shown: (1) obtained at a fixed bias current I B = 1 nA by varying the gate voltage V gB (stars); (2) measured at fixed gate voltage (in the minimum of V B) by incrementing I B = 1, 1.1,… 1.5 nA (diamonds). The solid lines in (a) show the photon emission rates calculated with the following parameters: fixed I B = 1 nA, T e = 0.5 K, E SETB = 280 μeV, Δ = 250 μeV, R T = 150 kΩ, where E SETB is the charging energy of SET B defined in the same way as that of the trap. We model the environment of SET B by R env = 1 and 1.25 kΩ and T env = 300 and 250 mK for the top and the bottom curves, respectively.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: A hybrid superconductor-normal metal electron trap as a photon detector