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Local field and isopotential images for a structure with different porosity inclusions at the same applied voltage: (a) 1 pore, (b) 5 pores, and (c) 17 pores. The black lines represent the isopotential curves (the difference between two successive lines is , where is the total applied voltage). Note that local field intensity is represented in a color scale, the field direction is perpendicular on the isopotential lines and the lines are more agglomerated around the high field positions.
Two virtual porous 2D structures (1 cm × 1 cm) with elongated pores in two geometries: (a) parallel and (d) perpendicular on the direction of the applied field; and the computed local fields under two different applied voltages: (b) and (e) and (c) and (f). Note that the local field intensity is represented in a color scale and the black lines are isopotential.
Computed permittivity and tunability vs. the applied voltage for two porous configurations with pores long axis: (a) and (b) parallel; (d) and (e) perpendicular with respect to the applied field direction; and (c) and (f) distribution of the local fields on the ceramic volume in both configurations for the applied voltage of 20 kV.
Experimental permittivity and dc-tunability vs. field for PZTN ceramics with anisotropic porosity levels, with long axis: (a), (c) parallel; (b), (e) perpendicular (with respect to the applied field direction; and (d) SEM picture of the PZTN surface with the highest porosity (40%), where the red electrodes represent the parallel configuration and blue electrodes represent the perpendicular configuration (bar: 500 μm).
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