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Solution processed LiF anode modification for polymer solar cells
16.The PCE of the control devices is quite poor, which is likely related to the quality of the interface between the active layers and the ITO used in this study. Using ITO from a different manufacturer for the control device yielded significantly higher PCE values, though still less than the combination of sol-LiF NP and PEDOT:PSS on the original ITO. To eliminate differences resulting from different ITO sources, only devices built on ITO from a single batch from a single source are referenced in this study.
18. A. Turak, J. Hanisch, E. Barrena, U. Welzel, F. Widmaier, E. Ahlswede, and H. Dosch, J. Renewable Sustainable Energy 2, 053103 (2010).
19. J. Nelson, The Physics of Solar Cells (Imperial College, London, 2003), p. 15.
21. J. Heidkamp, Diploma thesis, University of Stuttgart, 2009.
27. D. B. Sirdeshmukh, L. Sirdeshmukh, and K. G. Subhadra, Alkali Halides: A Handbook of Physical Properties (Springer, Berlin, 2001).
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36.As different suppliers were used for the ITO in the previous study, only the relative change is used.
39. J. Cui, Q. L. Huang, J. C. G. Veinot, H. Yan, Q. W. Wang, G. R. Hutchison, A. G. Richter, G. Evmenenko, P. Dutta, and T. J. Marks, Langmuir 18, 9958 (2002).
40.Similar values of series resistance and wetting ability for the sol-Li NP coated ITO and for ITO from another supplier also suggest that the original ITO surface provides a poor interface with PEDOT.
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The indium-tin-oxide/active layer interface is critical to the performance of organic solar cell devices. In this study, submonolayer films of LiF nanoparticles are deposited on the electrodesurface with the assistance of polymeric micelle reactors, with controlled nanoscale surface coverage. Incorporation of the solution-processed bi-layer electrodes into a conventional poly(3-hexyl-thiophene): [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester device shows significant improvement in device performance, especially when used in combination with a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene: poly(styrene sulfonate) layer. The nearly 5× improvement in the short circuit current and decrease in the contact resistance is mostly likely related to the increase in surface work function from the use of LiF nanoparticles. The results strongly indicate that engineering of the interfaces is a useful tool for future device optimization.
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