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Optical microscopy and SEM images of the S4 sample. The red points represent the positions of the micro-Raman measurements.
E2(high) modes in the ZnO thin-film Raman spectra. The inset shows the residual stress in the films for each sample.
RT-PL spectra of the ZnO thin films.
E2(high) modes in the ZnO thin-film Raman spectra measured at different positions. The inset shows the residual stress in the films for each position.
Details of the laser irradiation conditions during ZnO thin-film growth using the laser-assisted sol-gel method. The open circles (○) and crosses ( × ) indicate whether laser irradiation was performed or not performed, respectively.
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