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Schematic diagram of Nb-doped BST layer fabrication with three ceramic targets of BaTiO3, SrTiO3, and Nb2O5.
XRD patterns of undoped/Nb-doped BST annealed at 700 °C.
Hysteretic I-V characteristic curves of (a) undoped BST and (b) Nb-doped BST with the various cycle numbers.
The retention characteristics of undoped BST and Nb-doped BST thin films at room temperature as measured at 0.5 V.
XPS spectra of O 1 s electrons after AFM tip induced electrical stress for (a) undoped and (b) Nb-doped BST.
Current mapping images during resistance switching operation under ±7 V for (a) undoped and (b) Nb-doped BST.
Topology of (a) undoped/(c) Nb-doped BST measured by AFM and surface morphology of (b) undoped/(d) Nb-doped BST measured by SEM.
Surface compositions of undoped/Nb-doped BST by XPS.
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