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(a) MLCC sample for x-ray tomography; (b), (c) 2D projection images before and after sintering, respectively; (d), (e) reconstructed 3D microstructure before and after sintering, respectively.
(a) Discontinuities of electrode, defined as percentage of uncovered areas over the total electrode area; (b) axial and radial strains in different BT layers, irregular top BT layer (#1) was not considered and (c) relative densities of BT layers, calculated from the percentage of solid volume over the whole layer volume.
Microstructural changes of MLCC sample (Ni in purple, BT in green and pores in yellow): (a) multilayer before sintering, (b) pore network before sintering, (c) multilayer after sintering, and (d) pores after sintering.
Morphology of inner electrode #2: (a) initial microstructure and (b) final microstructures after sintering, respectively. Microstructures of electrodes #3-4 (not present) are similar to that of electrode #2.
Schematic of the defect evolution mechanism during sintering.
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