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(a) Tapping-mode AFM image (2000 × 2000 nm) of flattened Si(110) surface produced by a low-pH HF treatment and a subsequent H2 anneal. Annealing was performed in 0.1 Torr of H2 at 800 °C. (b) UHV-STM image (200 × 200 nm) of a flattened Si(110) surface. A cross-sectional profile of the stepped surface along the lines A-B in (b) is also shown.
(a) Magnified (11 × 11 nm) UHV-STM image of a flat Si(110) terrace. A schematic top view of the Si(110) ball-stick model is also shown. The open and closed balls, respectively, indicate H and Si. The zigzag line in the model indicates the arrangement of H atoms, consistent with the atomic arrangement shown in the STM image.
UHV-STM images (50 × 50 nm) of flattened (a) Si(111) and (b) (001) surfaces produced by a low-pH HF treatment and a H2 anneal. The insets show magnified atomic resolution images ((a) 3 × 3 nm; 1 × 1:H and (b) 5 × 5 nm; 2 × 1:H). Stable step directions, which are parallel to the step edges, are superimposed.
Cross-sectional TEM images of a SiNW in the 〈100〉 direction (a) before and (b) after the H2 anneal. (c), (d), and (e) Cross-sectional TEM images of the SiNW after the H2 anneal, taken along the 〈110〉, 〈111〉, and 〈112〉 SiNW directions. An ALD-HfO2 layer and a poly-Si capping layer were deposited after SiNW formation.
Schematic models of SiNWs for (a) 〈100〉, (b) 〈110〉, (c) 〈111〉, and (d) 〈112〉 long-axis directions. Stable step directions are indicated on the (001) and (111) facets. The SiNW in the 〈110〉 direction is the most stable. The SiNW in the 〈111〉 direction also seems stable because the sidewall facet boundaries are stable.
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