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(Color online) Schematics of the fabrication process of Ni nanotube arrays.
SEM image of free-standing Ni nanotube arrays.
TEM images of Ni nanotubes with wall thicknesses of (a) 15 nm, (b) 32 nm, and (c) 47 nm, respectively; (d) the dependence of wall thickness on the pore-widening time.
(Color online) The x-ray diffraction patterns of Ni nanotubes with different wall thicknesses.
(Color online) Hysteresis loops for nanotubes with wall thicknesses of (a) 15 nm, (b) 32 nm, and (c) 47 nm. The external field was applied parallel (H//) and perpendicular (H⊥) to the tube axis; simulated hysteresis loops for nanotubes with wall thicknesses of (d) 15 nm, (e) 30 nm, and (f) 45 nm. The demagnetization factors parallel to the tube axis (perpendicular to the plane of the 2D arrays) were set to 0.2, 0.6, and 0.7, respectively.
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