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(Color online) Schematic illustration of the controlled spalling process used to separate the top ∼14 μm of the tandem solar cell structure from its host Ge substrate.
(Color online) Cross-sectional SEM image of the entire thin-film solar cell structure (left). TEM images from the (a) top, (b) middle, and (c) bottom portions of the thin-film cell show no discernable defect.
(Color online) (a) Representative J-V characteristics of corresponding thin-film and bulk cells measured under one sun intensity. (b) 1D simulation results illustrating the Voc of the bottom cell versus the total Ge thickness as function of Srear, consistent with the observed Voc difference between the thin-film and bulk cells.
(Color online) (a) Corresponding EQE and reflectance data for the measured cells in Fig. 3. (b) Comparison of the IQE data for the top InGaP and middle (In)GaAs sub-cells of the thin-film and bulk solar cells, confirming the structural integrity of the thin-film tandem solar cell.
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