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(Color online) The XRD pattern for the samples prepared (a) three different temperatures, (b) at 600 °C for 10, 20, and 30 min deposition time (y-axis scale varies between 1 and 105, Cu K-alpha line (λ = 1.5406 Å) has been used), and (c) XRD pattern for all the samples, the ratio of d-values is 2.7480 Å and 2.5613 Å is 1.0728. The reconstruction of lattice and XRD peak at 2.5613 Å can be the result of compression of c-axis. Surface morphology and cross section of films deposited at (d) 400 °C, (e) 500 °C, (f) 600 °C, and (g) 700 °C (20 min deposition, x100 000).
(Color online) Possible mechanism, (a) ball stick model (100) or (110) projection w-ZnO, (b) primitive cell of w-ZnO, (c) primitive cell of rs-ZnO translation, (d) constructed cell (pink color) on (110) plane of w-ZnO, arrow indicates direction of displacement of Zn or O in (110) plane, (blue color plane is 100 plane of rs-ZnO whose diagonal is along c-axis of w-ZnO, sky blue color atoms shows dummy oxygen atom reflects position after transformation, (e) 100 surface of rs-ZnO be constructed primitive translation (−0.5, 0.5, 0), (0.5, 0.5, 0), and (0, 0, 1) and c-axis direction kept in a plane of paper to draw equivalence between constructed 100 surface in Figs. (d) and (e). (Blue color lines in Figs. (d) and (e) are equivalent), (f) is (100) plane, pink color line shows base of Fig. (e) or constructed (100) surface in Fig. (d) (the diagonal distance is shown in black line), (g) (100) plane of w-ZnO and longer diagonal distance is shown in pink color line. For better appreciation refer electronic version of Figure. In black and white figure color scale provides equivalence.
Lattice constant of w-ZnO as a function of temperature (a) a-axis and (b) c-axis (c) Lattice mismatch of rs-ZnO and MgO as a function of temperature.15,16
Approximate thickness of various samples deposited on MgO 200 substrate and fraction rs-ZnO. (The sample prepared at 400 °C is chosen as a reference.)
Mismatch parameters for various quantities at room temperature (RT) and 600 °C.
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