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HAADF-STEM images of Σ3 /(111) grain boundary in CeO2 viewed from the  direction, in which the location of grain boundary is indicated by the arrows. The bright spots in the figure correspond to Ce columns. A simulated HAADF-STEM image is overlaid on the figure.
(Color online) Ce M4,5 edge EELS spectra taken from the grain boundary and the bulk region.
(Color online) Atomic structure model of the stable Σ3 /(111) grain boundary in CeO2 obtained by the theoretical calculations. Arrows indicate the oxygen sites with three-fold coordination.
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