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(Color online) Deposition of nanodroplets onto a metal screen. (a) Experimental set-up showing the nano/micro-machined silicon tip, the liquid (water/methanol/nitric acid), the Cr coated Si wafer, and application of a voltage pulse (0-200 V) between the liquid and the wafer. (b) An SEM image of the nano-scale tip (scale bar = 1 μm). (c) An SEM image of the micro-scale tip (scale bar = 2 μm).
(Color online) Snapshot of nanodroplets. (a) AFM imaging following experiments using the nano-scale tip (scale bar = 5 μm). (b) Zoom on a single spot (scale bar = 500 nm). (c) Plots of the spot number n divided by total number of spots Nt versus the spot width w obtained using the nanotip (red triangles) and the microtip (blue squares) [inset shows spot width versus spot position in trace]. (d) zoom of w versus n/N t reveals steps in the plots (black arrows). (e) Histogram of spot width distribution using the nano-scale tip (red bars). (f) Histogram of spot width distribution using the micro-scale tip (blue bars).
(Color online) Spot width w and original droplet diameter d: schematic diagram of a droplet impinging a surface having a wetting contact angle of θ.
Experimental (N exp and d exp) and modeling (d cal) results for the nano-scale tip; d exp corresponds to the average experimental original droplet diameter is calculated from w exp (see Figure 3), and the droplet occurrence N exp is the number of spots in the given spot width interval. Droplet diameters corresponding to the model are shown starting from the initial bold values. Standard deviations are shown in brackets. Asterisks correspond to related droplet. Asterisks correspond to related droplet.
Experimental (N exp and d exp) and modeling (d cal) results for the micro-scale tip (see Table I for explanation). Asterisks correspond to related droplet.
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