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(Color online) Formation energy diagram for the (a) isolated-VO model, (b) VO-chain model, (c) partial-VO-chain model, and (d) disrupted-VO model. The insets in the figure show initial atomistic structure of each model.
VO cohesive energy as a function of charge state q for the VO-chain model with respect to the isolated-VO model.
(Color online) Schematic picture of the cohesion-disruption of the conducting channel.
Energy band structures for the (a) isolated-VO model in the intrinsic state, (b) VO-chain model in the two-electron-captured state, (c) partial-VO-chain model in the intrinsic state, and (d) disrupted-VO model in the intrinsic state. Energy band for rutile TiO2 bulk is also shown in the figure. The horizontal dotted lines indicate the position of the Fermi level.
(Color online) Schematic picture of the bipolar or unipolar switching mechanism in oxide-based ReRAMs. I-V curves for each switching behavior are also shown schematically.
(Color online) Schematic picture of the guiding principle for high quality oxide-based ReRAMs for the (a) bipolar set process, (b) bipolar reset process, and (c) unipolar set process. The VBT and CBB stand for valence band top and conduction band bottom, respectively, while FNT and PF indicate Fowler-Nordheim tunneling and Poole-Frenkel, respectively.
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