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Spatially resolved spectral mapping of phase mixing and charge transfer excitons in bulk heterojunction solar cell films
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Image of FIG. 1.

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FIG. 1.

(Color online) PL emission from pure PCBM and 1:4 wt. ratio MDMO-PPV:PCBM blend. CTX emission above 800 nm is obtained by subtracting PCBM emission from the blend spectrum. All PL data were corrected for system transmittance and CCD sensitivity.

Image of FIG. 2.

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FIG. 2.

(Color online) Confocal PL images of thermally annealed 1:4 wt. ratio MDMO-PPV:PCBM film in the (a) 740-750 nm (PCBM PL) and (b) 850-860 nm (CTX emission, scaled by 10×) regions. The A, D, and B notations represent the agglomerate, depletion, and blend zones, respectively. (c) Profiles of the PCBM and CTX emission along the line shown in (a). Panel (c) inset demonstrates the behavior of CTX PL as a function of PCBM loading, as represented by points 1, 2, and 3 in the CTX line profile. All PL data were corrected for system transmittance and CCD sensitivity.

Image of FIG. 3.

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FIG. 3.

(Color online) Confocal Raman spectra of thermally annealed 1:4 wt. ratio MDMO-PPV:PCBM blend in the agglomerate and blend regions (see Fig. 2). Raman peaks from MDMO-PPV are denoted with "*" and the MDMO-PPV PL background is represented by dashed lines.

Image of FIG. 4.

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FIG. 4.

(Color online) Schematic representation of MDMO-PPV and PCBM PL, as well as the CTX emission signal, for a line profile over an agglomerate (refer Fig. 2). The hypothesized local film morphology (e.g., PCBM concentration/dispersion and film thickness) associated with regions 1, 2, and 3 are shown below the plot.

Image of FIG. 5.

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FIG. 5.

(Color online) (a) Wavelength onset of PL for the CTX in the blend and depletion zones near a PCBM agglomerate (see Fig. 2(b)), measured in confocal mode. (b) Macroscopic PL (spot size ∼300 µm) of the CTX in unannealed MDMO-PPV:PCBM films with 20 and 80 wt. % PCBM. In both cases, high PCBM content results in a spectral red-shift of the CTX emission.

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/content/aip/journal/apl/100/7/10.1063/1.3687185
2012-02-16
2014-04-18

Abstract

Donor-acceptor phase mixing and charge transferexcitons (CTXs) in bulk heterojunction solar cell films have been imaged using confocal photoluminescence(PL) and Raman microscopy. Spatially resolved spectral analysis of PL was used to map fullerenediffusion and agglomeration as well as detect local changes in interfacial contact between donor and acceptor domains due to thermal annealing. CTX emission was most intense at the periphery of micron-sized fullerene agglomerates, which correlates with fullerene depletion in the surrounding film. Raman scattering indicates that the polymer phase is essentially immobile during the annealing process and that fullerene agglomerates reside atop a polymer-rich underlayer.

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Scitation: Spatially resolved spectral mapping of phase mixing and charge transfer excitons in bulk heterojunction solar cell films
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/apl/100/7/10.1063/1.3687185
10.1063/1.3687185
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