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(Color online) (a) Device image: an overhead view of a representative CPW device illustrating ports 1 and 2 on the feedline as well as the coupler end of the CPW. (b) Cross-sectional SEM of a resonator from the die with the deepest trench. The SF6 plasma has created a 400 nm deep trench in the Si.
(Color online) Loss vs electric field curves for representative resonators from each trench depth. While the loss at high electric field is similar for all trench depths, as the electric field decreases in the resonator the loss is reduced by up to a factor of two in the deepest trenched resonator. The field at which a single photon occupies the resonator is marked. The measured loss has been adjusted by for finite temperature effects.
(Color online) Loss tangent for CPW resonators at single photon excitations at different trench depths. The measured loss has been adjusted by for finite temperature effects. The red squares represent the average loss at low power in the single photon limit for the 3-5 resonators fully characterized at each trench depth; the error bars represent the standard deviation in loss at that depth. The green circles are the modeled surface loss contribution from the finite element software analysis normalized to the average measured loss at the shallowest trench depth. The line connecting the simulated points is a guide to the eye.
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