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(Color online) Atomic force microscopy images of 100 nm thick (a) BiFeO3, (b) Bi0.99Pb0.01FeO3, and (c) Bi0.97Pb0.03FeO3 thin films on LaAlO3 (001) substrates. (d) Evolution of the areal percentage of the mixed-phase regions on these samples as a function of Pb-content. (e)–(g) are reciprocal space maps of the 103-diffraction condition for BiFeO3, Bi0.99Pb0.01FeO3, and Bi0.97Pb0.03FeO3, respectively. (h) In-plane (a and b) and out-of-plane (c) lattice parameters of the MII-phase as a function of Pb-content as determined from the reciprocal space maps.
(Color online) Atomic force microscopy images and corresponding line traces (right) at the dashed line for as-grown (left) and electrically poled (center) 100 nm thick films of (a)–(c) BiFeO3, (d)–(f) Bi0.99Pb0.01FeO3, and (g)–(i) Bi0.97Pb0.03FeO3. Note that the height scales in (c), (f), and (i) are normalized to the fraction of mixed-phase regions on these samples for direct comparison.
(Color online) (a) Large scale and (b) zoom-in atomic force microscopy image of a 500 nm thick Bi0.99Pb0.01FeO3/LaAlO3 (001) thin film revealing the ability to stabilize the mixed-phase structures necessary for large electromechanical response into thick films. Line-trace across the mixed phase region reveals a surface depression of ∼23 nm and the capacity for large electromechanical responses. (c) X-ray diffraction results from a (orange data) 300 nm BiFeO3 film showing complete breakdown and a 500 nm Bi0.99Pb0.01FeO3 film showing the presence of the MII-phase.
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