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Formation of the yttrium/germanium interface: Fermi-level pinning and intermixing at room temperature
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View: Figures


Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Attenuation plots of versus deposited thickness, where x represents (a) Ge 2p or (b) Ge 3d signal. The mean free path (MFP) for Ge 2p and Ge 3d can be calculated from the slope of the plots to be 8.56 and 18.5 Å, respectively.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(Color online) In situ XPS spectra for different Y thicknesses (i.e., 0 (Clean), 0.96, 1.92, 3.84, 5.76, 9.60, 14.4, 19.2, 24.0, and 28.8 Å) on p-type Ge showing (a) Ge 3d, (b) Ge 2p3/2, and (c) Y 3d orbitals, and on n-type Ge showing (d) Ge 3d orbitals. The peaks have been normalized while the indicated thickness is on a cumulative basis.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(Color online) Fitted (a) Ge 3d and (b) Ge 2p3/2 XPS spectra after 5.76 Å of Y on p-type Ge. The fitted Y-Ge contribution is ∼1 eV lower than the Ge 3d substrate peak (which is fitted using two spin-orbits) while the Y-Ge peak is fitted using a single peak. (c) Plot of the intensity ratio between the fitted yttrium germanide (YGe) and the substrate (Ge-Ge) component against the thickness of the Y film deposited. The dotted line shows the calculated intensity ratios using the derived growth profile of the actual Y thickness (tYGE) versus the total deposited thickness in the inset. (d) In situ UPS spectrum of a 12-nm thick bulk yttrium film on p-type Ge. The inset shows the presence of the Fermi edge at close to zero binding energy.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Formation of the yttrium/germanium interface: Fermi-level pinning and intermixing at room temperature