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Schematic of the combinatorial film deposition method. Each layer of CFO or BFO forms as a wedge leading to a gradient in the average composition of the film, because the layers interdiffuse during growth. The wide arrows represent the centers of the plumes, and consequently the locations where the layer is the thickest.
(a) SEM images of the top view of the film made from the single target, and the composition spread samples. (b) TEM of a sample made from two alternated targets, and electron diffraction inset where C: CFO, B: BFO, and S: STO. (c) SEM of a sample after etching to remove the BFO matrix, leaving free-standing CFO pillars.
(Color online) (a) Wide angle XRD of a sample made from alternating targets with nominal composition 20% CFO and a sample made from a single target with 35% CFO. (b) High resolution scan of the range 42°–48° for the combinatorial series of samples, labelled 1–5.
(Color online) Magnetization loops measured by SQUID magnetometry. (a) nearly relaxed sample (sample #2) and (b) sample under 0.28% out-of-plane compressive strain (sample #4).
Volume fraction, Pillar density, x-ray peak positions, strain states, and anisotropy field predicted from the strain state and measured experimentally, for the combinatorial series samples 1–5. The non-columnar structure of sample 1 precludes a measurement of volume fraction from the plan-view SEM.
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