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Dependence of surface free energy on molecular orientation in polymer films
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(Color online) Optical micrographs of a deionized water droplet on polycarbonate films with different draw ratios (λ) of (a) λ = 1, (b) λ = 2, (c) λ = 3, (d) λ = 4, and (e) λ = 6. Note the decrease in droplet contact angle as the film draw ratio increases. Average contact angles are presented in Table I.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(Color online) Owens-Wendt plot for three probe liquids of differing surface tension wetting PC films surfaces of varying draw ratios.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Plot of the surface free energy of various drawn PC films against the polymer film square density ρ 2.


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Table I.

Corresponding contact angle measurements for three probe liquids on PC films without drawing, θ PC( λ  = 1), and with draw ratios of 2, θ PC( λ  = 2), 3, θ PC( λ  = 3), 4, θ PC( λ  = 4), and 6, θ PC( λ  = 6). Surface tension data for the three probe liquids, stating the total surface tension, γ s, with dispersive, γ l d, and polar, γ l p, components from Refs. 35 and 36.

Generic image for table
Table II.

The atomic percentage content of oxygen O(1s) at the PC film surfaces with different draw ratios (λ) of 1, 3, and 6 from XPS measurements. The error in the presented values is between 1.7% and 3.7%, calculated based on standard deviation area of the fitted curve to the photoelectron peak using casaxps software.

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Table III.

Surface free energy γ s of PC film solid surfaces including dispersive, γ s d, and polar, γ s p, contributions determined from the Owens-Wendt plot in Fig. 2. Density of PC film is experimentally measured.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Dependence of surface free energy on molecular orientation in polymer films