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Physical mechanism of Brownian ratchet type chemomechanical transduction. In this depiction, the structural backbone is shown in grey, antibodies are shown in red, and the sensed molecule is shown in blue. (a) Energy landscape and switch configuration for State X1, prior to encountering a ligand; (b)State X2, during ratcheting; and (d) State Xn, closed configuration. (c) Complex equilibrium transition between states caused by the formation of a new antibody-antigen-antibody sandwich bond.
Device topology as tested, all scales are 200 nm. (a) SEM image of device backbone. (b)Immuno-SEM image showing the surface density of IgG molecules. The immunolabel is an 18 nm Au particle. (c) IgG covalent conjugation molecular makeup. (d) Immuno-SEM image of bound streptavidan molecules. (e) Immuno-SEM images of the nonspecific interaction density of streptavidin with the underlying DSP-PrA surface. (f) Variation in the initial interior angle, θ 0, as fabricated for 1 μm and 2 μm devices.
Force across molecular complex as a function of its position along the backbone for 1 μm and 2 μm long devices.
Electron micrographs of 1 μm and 2 μm device response to 1.67 μM of streptavidin as well as the control response (T = 25 °C, t = 30 min).
Control and active device response mean and distribution in terms of percent movement toward closed state, Cr.
Control and active device response mean and variance in terms of net tip movement toward closed state.
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