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(a) Schematic plot of the experiment setup. (b) Phase diagram for the behaviors of water droplets, at different applied DC voltages. Data point ×, •, △, and ▪ indicate the low field motion, stable back and forth motion, unstable water bridge, and stable water bridge, respectively.
(a) Sequential images of stable back and forth water droplet motion. (b) Droplet moving frequencies of 1, 2, and 3 μl water and cell solution droplets at different electric fields. The frequencies are estimated by counting the snapshots taken by the high-speed camera (snapping rate is 300 fps). (c) Droplet shapes at different electric fields. (i) to (iii) show a 2 μl water droplet at electric field of 3.16, 3.42, and 4.21 kV/cm, respectively; (iv) and (v) show a 2 μl cell solution droplet at electric field of 2.37 and 3.16 kV/cm, respectively; and (vi) is the schematic of an elongated droplet.
(a) The measured alternating electrical signal of a cell solution droplet using an oscilloscope with experiment setup shown in Fig. 1(a) (sampling rate is 1 × 106 points per second). (b) The enlargement of the marked peak (indicated by the dashed ellipse) in Fig. 3(a). Dashed lines indicate the width of the peak. (c) Comparison of the theoretically and experimentally estimated charge amount.
Viability of cells after the cell solution droplet contacts with the electrodes for different numbers of times.
Sequential images of a cell solution droplet transported between four rod electrodes. Yellow arrows indicate the directions that the droplet is going to move. Red curves are the droplet moving trajectories. The gap distance l is 1.5 mm, and the applied electric field is 4 kV/cm.
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