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(a) Electron micrograph of one of the fabricated Y-branch junctions, showing its overall structure and the numbering scheme used throughout the paper to identify its branches. (b) Expanded view of the region roughly indicated by the white dotted line in (a). (c) Top: topographical scan of a single notch in a 1.5-μm wide Co bar (without the Y-branch). Center: corresponding MFM image for zero external magnetic field. Bright and dark regions correspond to strong phase shifts in the oscillations of the tip. Bottom: oommf simulation (5-nm cell size) of the magnetization for the same structure. Arrows indicate the direction of magnetization and are approximately to scale.
Top: oommf simulations of the magnetization of the junction, computed after returning to zero magnetic field from +0.1 T (left) and −0.1 T (right). The field was aligned parallel with the x-direction. Arrows in the figures indicate the direction of magnetization, while the correspondence of different colors to its strength (relative to Ms ) is indicated by the included color wheel. Bottom: MFM images obtained at zero magnetic field afterusing a permanent magnet to roughly magnetize the junction along the ±x-directions.
oommf simulations of the magnetization of the junction, which were obtained after returning to zero magnetic field from +1 T (top) and −1 T (bottom). The field was aligned parallel with the y-direction. Arrows indicate the direction of magnetization, while the correspondence of different colors to its strength (relative to Ms) is indicated by the included color wheels.
Measurements of the junction MR using the indicated branches. (a), (c), and (e) are obtained for the magnetic field along the y-direction, while (b), (d), and (f) were obtained with the field in the x-direction. The red and blue markers in panels (a) and (c)–(f) denote the peak value of the MR observed when sweeping the magnetic field in opposite directions. Arrows at the top of the figure indicate the correspondence of the MR curves to the field-sweep direction.
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