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(a) Schematic illustration of the device structure and measurement setup for pulse voltage-induced dynamic magnetization switching. The external magnetic field (H ext) was applied at a tilt of 3° from the film normal. (b) Minor magnetoresistance curve. (c) Bistable pulse voltage-induced dynamic magnetization switching under an external magnetic field of 600 Oe [dashed line in (b)]. The magnetization was initialized to the antiparallel (AP) state. The resistance was then measured after every 50 successive voltage pulse applications with an electric field of −1.35 V/nm and a pulse duration of 0.65 ns.
Magnetic energy potential (a)–(c) calculated from Eq. (1) and the Magnetization trajectory (d)–(f) calculated from Eq. (2) for H c = 50 Oe and H ext,z = 600 Oe. H s,perp is 1400 Oe (a),(c) in the off-state voltage and 600 Oe (b) in the on-state voltage. The red circles in (a)–(c) correspond to the magnetization directions (red arrows) in (d)–(f). The simulated result in (f) shows magnetization switching with a pulse duration of 0.4 ns.
Switching probabilities as a function of pulse duration with different electric fields under an external magnetic field of 600 Oe. The magnetization configuration was initialized to the AP state before every voltage pulse application.
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