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(a) Cross-sectional TEM image and (b) I-V curves of the DL-RRAM plotted with the SL-RRAM for comparison. Inset shows the enlarged plot of the SL-RRAM in linear scale.
(a) FN tunneling plot of HRS/LRS in positive/negative voltage regions. Temperature dependences of I-V curves for (b) HRS and (c) LRS.
(a) Thermionic-emission plot for positive and negative voltage regions in both LRS and HRS. Inset shows PF-emission plot. (b) A logarithmic plot of the current dependence of S i at frequencies, 20 and 100 Hz in four conditions (HRS/LRS for positive/negative voltages). Inset shows the S i of HRS for positive voltage region.
Schematic diagram of the proposed resistive-switching model. Each of the figures show (a) conduction band offset, (b) SET process, (c) LRS, (d) RESET process, and (e) HRS. (f) LRS and (g) HRS under the read bias.
Retention characteristics under constant voltage stresses of the DL-RRAM. Inset shows the retention characteristic of the SL-RRAM.
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